Georgia was the first European country to suffer at the hands of the Mongol invasions of the XIII century. This disaster was followed centuries later by the great Mongol leader Tamerlane, who invaded Georgia not less than eight times, starting in 1386. The huge armies were undefeatable and surrender was the only option for Georgians.
Dividing the kingdom into three principalities, the new overlords played the nobles off against each other and the king, and collected tribute from all. Georgian knights were then enlisted in the Mongol army and their technology and tactics were instrumental in the terrifying siege of Baghdad.